in both groups took part in attitude and motivation test battery (AMTB) as a pre test.
To make sure that both groups’ writings were not significantly different at the outset, an independent sample t-test was run on the means of the two groups on the writing of the PET; the results indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups on their writing at the outset. Subsequently, the treatment began with 30 students in each group sitting in a total of four different classes in a course lasting 20 sessions of 90 minutes each.
At the end of the treatment phase, participants of both groups took another attitude and motivation test battery (AMTB), this time as the posttest. To test the hypothesis of this study, an independent sample t-test was run.
The results indicated that there was indeed an insignificant difference between the mean scores of the two groups on their posttest following the treatment; consequently, the null hypothesis of the study stating that there is no significance difference between the effect of storytelling and role playing on EFL learners’ motivation was accepted.
The results of the attitude and motivation test battery questionnaire (post-test) revealed that the proposed null-hypothesis was not rejected. This implies that the differences between the storytelling and role-playing groups were statistically insignificant on motivation tests. The tendencies across all information showed that the participants considered the storytelling and role-playing techniques as useful and pleasant tools of learning. Storytelling and role-playing can supply a motivating and low apprehension situation for second or foreign language learning. Storytelling and role-playing are effective teaching instructions to increase EFL learners’ motivation. Besides, the obtained results of the present study support the success of these instructions in different areas.
5.3. Pedagogical implications
The findings of the present study suggest several pedagogical implications as follows:
Teachers should highly stimulate students’ motivation and enthusiasm for effective autonomous learning in the educational system because there is a need to develop important features that storytelling and role-playing instructions have in common with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) such as learner-centered instruction, communication, cooperative and collaborative learning, and complete meaningful activity. The teachers should also encourage emotional and intellectual participation of the students in the activities.
5.3.1. Implications for EFL Teachers
One of the major challenges that many teachers face is how to make the learners interested in order to teach effectively and also deal with unmotivated learners. Their focus should be mostly on needs analysis which is an important factor in successful teaching and learning process.
As motivation is one of the most important domains in second language acquisition, teachers must be aware of different techniques and strategies for enhancing the learner’s motivation. Therefore, the results of this investigation can be valuable for language teachers.
As it is clear from the findings of this study, it is very important for teachers to utilize different types of lively tasks and actively involve and encourage learners in the class procedures and the learning process.
5.3.2. Implications for EFL Syllabus Designers
Many characters are involved in the effort to facilitate the teaching-learning process. Syllabus designers and materials developers have probably the same importance in this regard, as well as teachers. They have to provide the content of teaching materials with the proper exercises to language learners with suitable strategies. Syllabus is an important component in language teaching process. It can provide a solution to many of the problems of school education. Language teaching syllabus will achieve its goals with the support of accordingly developed textbooks and instructional materials.
Since the advent of communicative language teaching (CLT) and the belief that language is best learned when it is being used to communicative messages, the communicative task has ascended to a position of prominence as a unit of organization in syllabus design.
5.4 Suggestions for further research
Following the findings of this research, several recommendations can be presented for further investigation. Among them, the researcher wishes to emphasize the following:
The present study investigated the effects of the storytelling and role-playing methods on EFL learners’ motivation. Further studies into this link are indispensable; role-play and storytelling cannot be obviously considered as the only independent methods to motivate students. Additional researches can also compare the effects of these methods on different areas, fields or investigate the same methods from a different perspective. The nature and personality of students’ participations in stories and roles and its relationship to learning is sophisticated and needs constant research. This study was conducted with a small sample of participants. Additional studies can examine the effects of the storytelling and role-playing with large samples.
The present study was performed on intermediate learners. Further studies can consider learners at other proficiency levels (upper or lower language proficiency).
The participants of the present study included only female students. Further researches can examine the effects of the same methods at different gender (male or coeducational contexts) and various age levels.
The results of the present study were collected from learners of a language institute; further examinations can be performed in diverse educational settings such as public or private schools and various universities.
Further investigation can take into account other variables such as cultural differences that were not considered in the present study.
It is worth important that further investigation can focus on why several students carry on failing to participate in role-play and storytelling processes. Obtaining the outlooks of teachers in helping role-play and storytelling practices can supply a further viewpoint.
Further researches in diverse contexts may enhance students’ comprehension of the application of storytelling and role-playing methods across a range of circumstances. Role-playing and storytelling teaching methods in an EFL context are still in requirement of further researches. Therefore, the data supplied in the present study demand researchers to more develop study into the areas of role-playing and storytelling. Researchers require developing role-play and storytelling studies to involve all individuals.
Further research can also determine the skills correlated with these teaching methods so that they provide more research foundation to examine motivation or other variables.
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