منابع پایان نامه درباره Discourse، Translation، جنگ جهانی دوم

(1993: 26) point to five effects of passive transformation. They are listed here:
• The theme of the sentence changes from actor to affected.
• The link between actor and process is weakened, i.e. the causal connection is syntactically looser.
• The process becomes more like an adjective, a state.
• The cause of the process is deleted, and it may be difficult or impossible to recover.
• Causality is no longer the main concern but instead attribution or classification is. The change from verbal process to qualify or state is complete.
As it was mentioned earlier, the purpose of transformations including passive transformation is mystification and obscuring. On the contrary the opposite is also correct, that is when non-transformed version is used the process of causality from the writer’s viewpoint is going to be revealed to the readers and an ‘anti-mystification’ process is on the way.
2.10.1.3 Multimodal Elements
Finally, in probing multimodal elements, the cover page will be analyzed and the way it is represented in the largest text is scrutinized. In doing so ‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ will be employed.
2.10.1.3.1 Multimodal Discourse Analysis
Today, it is a normal practice that texts do not merely rely on written language. In order to achieve the goals of the writers and publishers multiple modes are used, each of which is a complementary tool to reach the final meaning desired by them. Some scholars even state their doubt on whether language is the most effective mode in all conditions. Their reason is that ‘other modes may be able to realize discursive meanings which writing or speech could not, and because some meanings may be more readily ‘received’ in one mode rather than another’ (Kress & Leeuwen, 2001: 29-30). It is a real and undeniable fact that monomodal texts are increasingly replaced by multimodal texts.
Kress and Leeuwen (2001: 20) define multimodality ‘as the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these modes are combined’. In other words ‘multimodality is communication as a multimodal phenomenon where meaning is realized in the interplay between different modes of signification such as language, image, and music. Multimodality is by no means something new, but increasing distribution of the electronic media and tendencies to visualization in the print media may have contributed to the increased theoretical attention to multimodality in recent years (Kress & leeuwen, 2001: 155).
Some of the scholars go further and believe that all discourse is inherently multimodal, not monomodal. That is, language in use, whether it is in the form of spoken language or written, is inevitably constructed across several modes of communication, including speech and gesture not just in spoken language but through some ‘contextual’ phenomena such as the use of the physical spaces in which we carry out our discursive actions or the design, papers, and typography of the documents within which our texts are presented (Le Vine & Scollen, 2004: 1-2).
‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ attempts to study social meaning making through language and other semiotic modes such as image as Kress and Van Leeuwen state or music and sound according to Van Leeuwen (Le Vine & Scollen, 2004: 154).
In order to be able to communicate with semiotic signs other than linguistic texts ‘Multimodal Discourse Analysis’ is used to find the meaning of multimodal texts such as book cover pages which employ different modes like typography, images and colors.
2.10.2 Macrolevel
Based on Farahzad’s Translation Criticism model (Bokhara, 2007, N. 62: 420-424)
1. Translator’s Judgement
2. Categorizations and Classifications
3. Representation of Reality
4. Power Relation
5. Ideologies
6. Implications
Moreover, the translation strategies are taken into account at this level. In this stage, the following items are scrutinized:
• Borrowing
• Calque
• Addition or Overwording
• Undertranslation
• explicitation
• Rearrangement of Sentence Elements
• Omission
• Substitution / Alteration
• Mistranslation
• Selection of Parts from Wholes
Considering the above-mentioned history of CDA, it reveals that language has direct bearing on structuring power. In other words, it is in close relation to ideology and power. Furthermore, it is worthwhile to mention that language consists of linguistic elements which are themselves affected by social and cultural elements. This indicates the role of power in determining meaning. This study attempts to investigate two political works: “Killing Hope, US Military & CIA Interventions Since World War II” by Blum (2003) and “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” by Kinzer (2003) and their translations: “”سرکوب امید by Hooshang Mahdavi and “همهی مردان شاه” by Khavvajian at both micro-level and macro-level based on what mentioned in Farahzad’s model of translation criticism to disclose the hidden ideology and power or the hidden reality beneath the existent words. The researcher is supposed to bring these texts to close and detailed scrutiny. This research is going to underscore the use of verbs; whether they are chosen actively or passively, the use of modifiers like adjectives, adverbs, and phrases in describing people and places, and the like in the two aforementioned political works and their translations. This examination will be revealing some concealed hints in terms of the dominant ideology of these texts.
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
There are many different methods in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) investigations. these wide variety of theories, range from micro-sociological perspectives to theories on society and power, theories of social cognition and grammar, as well as individual concepts that are borrowed from larger theoretical traditions ( Meyer, cited in Wodak & Meyer, 2001 : 17).
The present chapter introduces the type of research, the corpus of the study, as well as the data collection and analysis method.
3.2 Restatement of Research Questions
This research tries to answer the following questions in the forthcoming chapters:
1. To what extent does the translator change the ideological position of Blum’s “Killing Hope” with recourse to Farahzad’s Translation Criticism Model?
2. To what extent does the translator change the ideological position of Kinzer’s “All the Shah’s Men” with recourse to Farahzad’s Translation Criticism Model?
3.3 Type of Research
This research is a corpus-based descriptive-explanatory comparative study of written texts between English and Persian languages.
3.4 Corpus
As mentioned before, the corpora chosen are William Blum’s (2003) “Killing Hope US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II” translated by Abdorreza Hooshang Mahdavi (2009) as “”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” which reviews the destructive foreign policy of the U.S. in over fifty countries. The translation was published in Markaz-e Asnad-e Enghelab-e Islami (Center of Islamic Revolution Documents) in Iran which is affiliated to government Another book under detailed study is Stephen Kinzer’s (2003) ”All the Shah’s Men An American Coup and the Roots Of Middle East Terror” which is translated by Shahryar Khajian (2004) and entitled “”همه مردان شاه کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه. This book discusses the significant role of CIA in overthrowing Mossadegh, Iran’s prime minister and backing the 1953 Iranian coup d’état.
3.5 Procedure
The corpus of the study was segmented into four parts: two source books mentioned in the last part and their translations. The data was collected based on the method described below and were analyzed for the purpose of determining the ideologically significant strategies. The dominant unit of analysis was sentence unless more than one sentence was required to make equivalence relation between corresponding units.
3.5.1 Data Collection
The whole investigation revolved around applying Farahzad’s model of CDA to the chosen texts. Since CDA generally and Farahazad’s model of CDA specifically are mostly applied on political genre Both ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and their translations which are chosen to be investigated here fall under the category of political texts by critics. CDA demands the close analysis of these texts via the detailed examination of sentences in both the original books and the translated ones.
The first book under investigation which was ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” depicted the interventions of USA in 50 countries around the world. Since from among these 50 countries it was considered that the Asian, Middle Eastern, and Islamic countries were closer to the political views of the translator and his country, Iran, the countries which fit the criteria were selected. These parts of the book were scrutinized thoroughly line by line. Sentences which were altered during the process of translation were selected and the strategies applied to them were mentioned; moreover, the reason why these changes were applied in the TT was elucidated.
The second book under analysis was “All the Shah’s Men an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”. Regarding the mentioned book the whole ST and its corresponding translation were studied. The

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