پایان نامه ارشد رایگان با موضوع Environment، Agriculture، Education

Atlantic Mountane rain Forest: the influence of topography.Plant Ecol.197, 239-253.
Filipescu, C.N., Comeau, P.G., 2007. Competitive interactions between aspen andwhite spruce vary with stand age in boreal mixedwoods. For. Ecol. Manage. 247,175-184.
Fuhrer, E ., 2000. Forest fnction,ecosystem stability and management .For. Ecol .Manage .132, 29-38.
Gagnon, J.L., Jokela, E. J., Moser,W.K., Huber, D. A., 2004. Characterstics of gaps and natural regeneration in mature longleaf pine flatwoods ecosystem.For. Ecol. Manage .187, 373-380.
Getzin, S., Wiegand, K., 2007. Assymetric tree growth at the stand level: Random crown patterns and the response to slope. For. Ecol. Manage. 242, 165-174
Gilliam, F.S., 2007.The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystem. Bioscience. 57, 845-858.
Goldblum, D., 1997. The effects of treefall gaps on understory vegetation in NewYork State .J.Veg. Sci. 8,125-132.
Gray, A.N., Spies, T.A., 1996. Gap size, within-gap position and canopy structure effects on conifer seedling establishment. J. Ecol. 84, 635-645.
Gray, A.N., Spies,T.A.1999. Microsite controls on tree seedling establishment in conifer forest canopy gaps .Ecology 78, 2458-2473.
Gray, A.N., Spies, T.A., Easter, M.J., 2002. Microclimatic and soil moisture responses to gap formation in coastal Douglas-fir forests. Can. J. For. Res. 32, 332-343.
Gonza´lez, G., Garc?´a, E., Cruz , V., Borges, S., Zalamea , M.,. Rivera, R., 2007. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico. European Journal of Soil Biology 43 , 24 -32.
Green, P.T., 1996. Canopy gaps in rain forest on Christmas Island, Indian ocean: Size distribution and methods of measurement. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12, 427-434.
Gutie´rrez, A.G., Aravena, C., Carrasco-Far?´as, N., Christie, D.A., Fuentes, M., Armesto, J.J. Gap-phase dynamics and coexistence of a long-lived pioneer and shade-toleranttree species in the canopy of anold-growth coastal temperate rain forest of Chiloe´ Island, Chile. Journal of Biogeography .doi:10.1111.j.1365-2699.2008.01908.x
Hale, Cindy M., Frelich, L.E., Reich, P. B., Pastor , John., 2005. Effects of european earthworm invasion on soil characteristics in Northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Ecosystems. 8: 911-927.
Hammer, ?., Harper, D.A.T. and Ryan, P.D., 2001. PAST version1.39:Paleoontological Statistical Software Package for Education and Data Analysis.Paleontological eletronica 4(1) , 9p.
Hart, J.L., Grissino-Mayer, H.D., 2009 .Gap-scale disturbance pricesses in secondary hardwood stands on the Cumerland Plateau,Tennessee,USA. Plant Ecol.201,131-146.
Hill, M.O., 1973. Diversity and evenness:a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 5(2) , 427-432.
Holeska, J., 2003. Relationship between field-layer vegetation and canopy openings in a Carpathian subalpine spruce forest .Plant Ecology 168, 57-67.
Holladay, C.A., Kwit , C., Collins, B., 2006. Woody regeneration in and around aging southern bottomland hardwood forest gaps , effects of herbivory and gap size. For .Ecol. Manage. 223 , 218-225.
Hu, L., Gong, Z., Li, J., Zhu, J. 2009. Estamination of canopy gap size and gap shape using a hemispherical photograph. Trees 23 , 1101-1108.
Hu, L., Zhu, J., 2009. Determination of the ridimensional shape of canopy gapsusing two hemispherical photographs. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149 , 862-872.
Huth, F., Wagner, S., 2006. Gap structure and establishment of Silver regeneration (Betula pendula Roth) in Norway spruce stands(Picea abiesL. Karst.) . For. Ecol. Manage. 229 , 314-324 .
Ise, T., Moorcroft, P.l .R ., 2008. Quantifying local factors in medium-frequency trends of tree ring records:Case study in Canadian boreal forests.For. Ecol.. Manage.256 , 99-105.
Jennings, S.B., Brown, N.D. and Sheil, D. 1999. Assessingforest canopies and understorey illumination:canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures. Forestry. 72(1) : 59-74.
Jones, T.A., Domke, G.M., and Thomas, S.C. 2008. Canopy tree growth responses following selection harvest in seven species varying in shade. Can. J. For. Res .39 : 430-440.
Joschko, M., Fox, C.A., Lentzsch, P., Kiesel, J., Hierold, W., Krück, S., Timmer, J., 2006. Spatial analysis of earthworm biodiversity at the regional scale. Agriculture,Ecosystem and Environment 112 ,367-380.
Kale, R. D., Karmegam, N., The role of earthworms in tropics with emphasis on Indian ecosystems. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. doi:10.1155.2010.414356.
Kenderes. K, Mihok, B., Standovar, T., 2008. Thirty years of gap dynamics in a central european beech forest reserve. Forestry 81( 1).doi:10.1093.forestry.cpn001.
Kenney, A.J., and Krebs, C.J., 2001. Ecological Methodology version 6.0.Dept.of Zoology , University of British Columbia ,Vancover , B. C.Canada.
Klopcic, M., Boncina, A., Patterns of tree growth in a single tree selection silver fir-European beech forest. J. For. Res. DOI:10. 1007.s10310-009-0157-1.
Kooch , Y., Jalilvand, H., Bahmanyar, M.A., Pormajidian, M.R.,2008.Aboundance,biomass and vertical distribution of earthworms in ecosystem units of Hornbeam forest. J.Biol.Sci.8(6) ,1033-1038.
Kooch, Y., Hosseini, S. M., Mohammadi, J., Hojjati, S. M. 2010. The Effects of Gap Disturbance on Soil Chemical and Biochemical Properties in a Mixed Beech – Hornbeam Forest of Iran. ECOLOGIA BALKANICA. 2 , 39-56.
Kucbel, S., Jaloviar, P., Saniga, M.,Vencurik, J., Klimas,V. Canopy gaps in an old-growth fir-beech forest remnant of Western Carpathians.Euro.J.forest.res.DOI: 10.1007.s10342-009-0322-2.
Kukkonen, M., Rita, H., Hohenwald, S., Nygren, A., 2008.Treefall gaps of certified, conventionally managed and natural forest as regeneration sites for Neotropical timber forest in northern Honduras. For. Ecol .Mange. 255 , 2163-2176.
Legout, A., Nys, C., Picard, J.F., Turpault, M.P., Dambrine, E., 2009. Effects of storm Lothar(1999) on the chemicalo composition of soil solution and on herbaceous cover,humus and solis(Fougeres,France). For. Ecol. Mange, 257 , 800-810.
Li, P., Wang, Q., Endo, T., Zhao, X., Kakubari, Y., 2010. Soil organic carbon stock is closely related to aboveground vegetation properties in cold-temperate mountainous forests. Geoderma 154 , 407- 415
Long, C., Yu, S. 2008 .Spatial variation of seed rain and seedbank in gaps of karst forest in the maolan Nature Reserve, Guizhou province. Front. for.Chian 3 (3) , 315-320.
Lusk, C.H., Smith, B., 1998. Life history differences and treespecies coexistence in an old-growth New Zealand rain forest. Ecology 79 , 795-806.
Marchand. P., Houle, G., 2006. Spatial patterns of plant species richness along a forest edge: What are their determinants. For.Ecol. Manage.223,113-124.
Margelef, R.,1957. Diversidad de species en las commundads naturals.publicacienes de instituto de biological aplicate 6, 59-72.
Martins, S.V., Rodrigues, R.R., 2002.Gap-phase regeneration in a semideciduous mesophytic forest, south-eastern Brazil. Plant Ecology 163:51-62.
Marvie-Mohadjer, M.R., 2004. Silviculture of the oriental Beech(Fagus orientalis Lipsky) ; experiences made in Caspian forest, North of Iran. Proceedings from 7th International Beech Symposium IUFRO Research group1. 10.00, Tehran, Iran. 13-15.
Matthewe, John., 1991. Silviculture System, Clarendon Press Oxford. 284p.
McCarthy, J., 2001.Gap dynamics of forest trees: a review with particular attention to boreal forests. Environ.Rev. 9,1-59.
McLean, M.A., Parkinson, D., 2000.Field evidence of the effects of the epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra on the microfungal community in pine forest floor. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32 , 351-360.
Meier, A.J., Bratton, S.B., Duffy, D.C., 1995. Possible ecological mechanisms for loss of vernal-herb diversity in logged eastern deciduous forests. Ecol.appl.5, 935-946.
Menhinick, E.F., 1964. A comparison of some species individual diversity indices applied to sample of field insects. Ecology 5, 839-961.
Merino, A., Edeso, J.M., Gonzalez, M.J., Marauri, P., 1998. Soil properties in a hilly area following different harvesting management practices. For. Ecol. Manage.103,235-246.
Merino, A., Real, C., Rodriguez-Guitian, M.A., 2008. Nutrient status of managed and natural forest freagments of Fagus sylvatica in Southern Europe. For.Ecol. Manage.255, 3691-3699.
Miller, S.D., Goulden, M.L., Da Rocha, H.R., 2007. The effect of canopy gaps on subcanopy ventilation and scaler fluxes in a tropical forest.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology142, 25-34.
Mohammadnezhad Kiasari1, Sh., Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., Rahmani, R. and Ghasemi Chapi, O., 2009. Seasonal Variation of Earthworm Abundances and Biomass in Natural Forests and Plantations (North of Iran). Caspian J. Env. Sci. 7(2) , 87-98.
M?lder, A., Bernhardt-R?mermann, M., Schmidt, W., 2008. Herb-layer diversity in deciduous forests:raised by tree richness or beech?For.Ecol and Manage. 256,272-281
Mountford , E.P., Savill, P.S., Bebber, D.P., 2006. Patterns of regeneration and groundvegetation associated with canopy gaps in a managed beechwood in southern England .Forestry. 79( 4 ) , 390-408.
Muscolo, A., Sidiri, M., Mercurio, R., 2007.Influence of gap size on organic matter decomposition,microbial biomass and nutrient cycle in Calabrian pine (Pinus laricio,poivet) stands. For. Ecol. Manage. 242, 412-418.
Muscolo,A., Sidari, M., Bagnato. S., Mallamaci, C., Mercuri , R., 2010.Gap size effects on above- and below-ground processes in a silver fir stand. Eur. J. Forest Res. 129,355-365.
Muth, C.C., Bazzaz, F.A., 2002. Tree canopy displacement at forest gap edges. Can. J. For. Res.

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید