منابع پایان نامه درباره جنگ جهانی دوم، انقلاب اسلامی، interest

more burdens of responsibility on the USA’s shoulders and had let the readers to blame US more easily.
Regarding the selected parts from the second book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” there were 4750 verbs on the whole in the source corpus, 840 of which relationals, 3910 and actionals.
This showed again that this text dealt more with actions rather than relations and attributions. Moreover in the TT there were 5420 verbs. 3960 Of them were actionals and 1460 were relationals (Table 4.2). The TT tended to actions rather than relations too. As it had been said most of the agents in both TT and ST were somehow related to America. So once again it became clear that in the TT the USA became more responsible for actions and as they were more related to abuses of power and evil deeds, the US more deserved to be blamed and condemned by readers.
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 326 uses of such words in the ST and 372 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 216 times while in the Target Text this became 248; moreover, the term Britain and its related words were repeated 493 times in the ST while they were repeated 562 times in the TT. In the ST these words played roles as direct agents for 388 times while the same words in the TT were appeared 412 times as direct agents (Table 4.2). This depicts that in the TT USA and Britain were more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was based on the fact that these two countries were directly responsible for the Coup to oust Mosaddegh in Iran It became interesting that the translator had put more burdens of responsibility on the shoulders of USA and Britain and had let the readers blame them more easily.
Table 4.1- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد
KILLING HOPE
ST
TT
Total Verbs
4483
5014
Actionals
3868
4179
Relationals
615
835
Passives
584
652
Total USA Related Usage
2127
3320
USA as Direct Agent
1420
1920
4.2.2.1 Passive Transformation
In ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” there were 584 passives which comparing the 4483 processes, had not been that important (around 12 percent). This showed that the writer had revealed causality process in his sentences and had avoided mystification. This was, by some means, in line with the critical tone of the writer who had investigated ”US military and CIA interventions since World War II”. In the target text, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”, there were 652 passives out of 5014 processes (around 12 percent). Again this showed the translator had not radically changed the voices of the verbs, regarding the total number of the processes in Persian. The translator, also, wanted the agents to be clear because through this technique the critical and denouncing positioning of the translator towards the USA became more unambiguous.
In the second book, “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”, the same trend was obvious There were 260 passives out of 4750 processes (about 6 percent of the total amount). In the translated text there were 180 passives out of 5420 processes (around 2 percent). These numbers showed that both the translator and author had chosen the anti-mystification strategy to show what the United States was performing in its ongoing relations with the rest of the world. But a delicate difference was evident in this book and its corresponding translation regarding the former book, i.e. passives had reduced by around 4 percents in the TT. It was already mentioned that the second book was entirely dedicated to show what America and Britain had done and were doing in their ongoing deeds inside and outside their borders and the majority of ‘agents’ directly or indirectly referred to the USA and Britain or their administrative institutions like CIA and MI6. By decreasing the number of passives, once again the USA and Britain became more responsible for its actions and evilness in the TT.
Unlike the author whose context was US community and may have taken some matters into considerations by not talking more vividly the translator was in a totally different context. He did not feel any problem to reveal whatever was regarded as bad deeds against America and Britain so they had used active mode more generously instead of passives.
4.2.3 Cover page Analysis
4.2.3.1 Analyzing the cover-page of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”
Image 4.1- cover page of “Killing Hope”
Elements: images & words
Images: – Foreground: one fighter→ action: military power
– Background: a distant view over the earth → action: victimize
Typography title: – Up: William Blum, AUTHOR OF ROGUE STATE
– Middle: all in capital: KILLING HOPE
– Down: US Military & CIA Interventions since World War II
The aircraft in the multimodal text (image 4.1), i.e. cover page, was a spy aircraft which could be regarded as the characteristic of American military power and its hegemony over the world; so it symbolizes power. It is black which can be a sign for suffocating hegemony of the USA after World War II over most part of the world and the black color is also aligned with the title of the book- Killing Hope. The fighter covers to the extent of 80 percent of the cover page foreground and the rest which is a-twenty-percent background shows a distant view of the earth. This devotion (80&20) by itself can illustrate that US has a large proportion of the earth under its power. The direction of the fighter represents the liveliness and the presence of the power.
On the whole, the composition of the elements of the cover page represented some kinds of power interrelated with lack of hope.
The USA, which fought in the name of peace and war with terrorism. Actually the USA, which shouts democracy and “hope” for every nation in the world now, is brought under the question of all he proclaims with the terms used in the title of the book, ”Killing Hope”. The USA which is supposed to bring ”hope” to nations is now killing it.
The blue color of the earth at the background symbolizes tranquility and peace. This might suggest to an observant viewer the USA’s fighting in the name of peace.
The large font of the main title and also that it is written all in capital makes it to become closer to the viewer and became the most dominant element in the cover page and hence might make the viewer more engaged in the idea behind the title. Moreover, the color of the letters is white which is supposed to represent peace but ironically the word “killing” is written in it. The words “US military & CIA” which are supposed to protect human rights and nation rights are also written in white along with “interventions” which brings a total paradox to the ground.
Table 4.2- verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه
ALL THE SHAH’S MEN
ST
TT
Total Verbs
4750
5420
Actionals
3910
3960
Relationals
840
1460
Passives
260
180
Total USA Related Usage
326
372
USA as a Direct Agent
216
248
Total Britain Related Usage
493
562
Britain as a Direct Agent
388
412
4.2.3.2 Analyzing the cover page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”
Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”
Elements: images & words
Images: – Foreground: an American soldier holding an M16 in hand → action: military power
– Background: a twilight → action: despair and wane
Typography title: – Down: ”ویلیام بلوم” in black and red
“مترجم: دکتر عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی” in white
” سرکوب امید” in a large white font
“(دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد)” in a small white font
” مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی” in a small white font
The US soldier holding an M16 standing at the foreground colored all black because he is standing between the viewer and the last remaining of the sunlight. The color of the soldier’s photo matches the color of the fighter on the cover of the original book. They both represent military power along with despair. The part that specifically covers the sun is the gun which without it the sunlight could reach the viewer. The diagonal position of the barrel of the gun can represent uncertainty of the soldier holding it or at least not being ready shoot. The twilight at the background can represent the last remaining hope to reach peace and freedom for those under the exploitation of the USA which without US military power reaching it is possible. Twilight along with the diagonal position of the gun can also symbolize the power of the USA on the wane. More than half of the page is colored red which brings to the mind

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