منابع پایان نامه درباره Reza Shah، the Middle East، خاورمیانه

of the viewer the color of blood which unlike the background color in the original book (blue) causes dread and insecurity.
The title of the book like the one in the original book is written in white and large font to bring the idea behind the topic closer to the viewer. The same paradox between the content of the title which is despair and the color of the letters which is white can be found in both the original and the translated books.
There are different types of fonts in Persian language but the one is selected here is more rigid than the regular smooth and flexible ones to demonstrate toughness of the idea behind it. Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”
Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”
Elements: images & words
Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street→ action: demonstration
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
Typography title: – Up: all in capital: All THE SHAH’S MEN
– Down: all in capital: STEPHEN KINZER
The photo that is covering half of the page seems to be taken from a group of people at the time of the Coup in Iran. The garlands around the pictures of the Shahs show these people are supporting the Shah. Since there were two groups at the time of the Coup: one supporting Mosaddegh, another supporting the Shah, the cover page seems to have lost one of them. In the middle of the page the “AN AMERICAN COUP AND THE ROOTS OF MIDDLE EAST TERROR” is written in red that is a proper choice because red brings blood and danger into the mind of the reader. Also the middle text like all letters on the cover is written in capital to enlarge the vastness of American crimes. At the top there is nothing but half a page in white which All THE SHAH’S MEN is written on it in large font and in black. Using black on white background at the top somehow represents the blackness of The Shah and “all the Shah’s men” ‘s character over the whiteness of pure Iran and the capitalization of the letters tries to magnify this blackness. Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”
Image 4.4- cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه”
Elements: images & words
Images: – Foreground: Iranian people standing on the street → action: demonstration.
– Background: a view of some large pictures from Reza Shah and Mohammadreza Shah → action: their majesty and showing respect toward them
– Up: a stamp of the Shah Mohammadreza → action:
Typography title: – Up: in black and large font: همهی مردان شاه and in smaller font and black under it کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاورمیانه
– Middle: written in white on a red background استیفن کینزر and under it ترجمه شهریار خواجیان
Since both the original and the translated book share the same image that covers half of the page what has been mentioned about the image of the cover page in the original book can be applied here as well; though, there is a slight change at the top of the cover page. The color of the cover page at the top is gray that connotes ambiguity and vagueness and it also foreshadows blackness. It does not resemble the cover page of the ST that is black and white at the top. The stamp of the Shah nearly in the middle of the cover page and its position is of great importance. Using someone’s photo on a stamp represents permanence and stability. The Shah is wearing military uniform on the stamp which represents power at the same time the position of the stamp on the cover page is not upright which is demonstrating instability of Shah’s position in the country which can be an answer to those protecting The Shah in the image at the bottom of the page. Since the translator could not bring another image to represent both parties: those demonstrating for The Shah and those demonstrating for Mosaddegh, he employed the stamp to represent the latter party. Considering what has been mentioned so far, the cover page of the TT seems to encompass both parties, rather than the cover page of the TT which encompassed one of the two parties.
4.3 Macrolevel Analysis
4.3.1 Translators’ judgments
At this level of investigation the translators’ judgments was scrutinized. The traces of translators’ ideological viewpoints could be found in preface to translations, footnotes, and endnotes thereof.
William Blum, the author of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” was a member of the Western community. The title he chose for his book at the first step suggested that there were some people out there whose hope is being killed by US military and CIA which at this level might include the Americans, the country or the states of the US. In this regard he is a political critic who describes the interventions of the USA in other countries in his book, briefly. The reason why he criticized US policy is different from that of the Iranian translator, because he is part of the Western culture. This meant that the Function of the texts in the receiver’s culture was different from that of the source culture. The author wrote the book not because he hated America or wanted to damage his own country but because he thinks in this way he is serving his country in a reformist manner.
On the other hand, the translated book was published in Iran which considered the USA as its most dangerous foe. America is the ‘great devil’ for Iranian official policy developers. In this different context the book’s function had changed to some extent. The TT did not have a constructive role as the original one but it followed a destructive role to darken the picture of the ‘greatest enemy’. Here the book and its translator were located in the culture of those people who might hate America, not that of ‘America’ which is the subject of hatred and that of the authors.
In the preface to the translated book which is published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” the Center of Islamic Republic Documents, one of the governmental dependant organizations, in Iran there are some statements like:
– زیادهخواهی آمریکاییان در سایر کشورها
– سیاهکاریهای ایالات متحده در ایران
– غارت ثروت ملی ایران
Which show the gravity of hatred from the perspective of the translator and the Center of Islamic Republic Documents which published the book and it is a representative of Iranian government. Moreover, sentences like:
– نویسنده به اوضاع داخلی کشورمان در عصر پهلوی و حمایتهای آمریکا از بزرگترین دیکتاتور منطقه بسیار کمتر پرداخته و فقط به مقتضای بحث در بخشهای مختلف کتاب به آن اشاره میکند.
– وقایع دوران نهضت ملی و چگونگی اجرای کودتای 28 مرداد در بحث مستقل و نه چندان مبسوط آمده است.
– البته تمامی مطالب کتاب با واقعیتهای جهانی همخوانی ندارد و نظرات و قضاوتهای نویسنده نیز دربارهی تمامی گروهها و نظامهای حاکم بر کشورهای مختلف کاملا صادق نیست.
Show that although the Center of Islamic Republic Documents appreciates the view of the writer and his work, they are not in agreement with all the matters went on in the book. They believe that since Iran played a vital role in not only the Middle East but also over the globe dealing with matters related to Iran must have been more in depth and length.
In the preface of the book “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” written by Stephen Kinzer who is a veteran New York Times correspondent and has reported from more than fifty countries on five continents we are facing someone who is in the US context and is trying to elaborate on the matter why the outlook of people outside the borders of the US is gloomy toward America. Looking at the following sentence which are told by an Iranian woman, we figure out the main mission of Kinzer’s writing this book is to go into the detail of the reasons why other countries mistrust the USA, so that this would never happen in the future and America would gain the trust of other nations back and become the godfather everyone expects.
“Why did you Americans do that terrible thing?” she cried out. “We always loved America. To us, America was the great country, the perfect country, the country that helped us while other countries were exploiting us. But after that moment, no one in Iran ever trusted the United States again. I can tell you for sure that if you had not done that thing, you would never have had that problem of hostages being taken in your embassy in Tehran. All your trouble started in 1953.Why, why did you do it?”
Moreover in one paragraph of the preface kinzer uses the word “Theocracy” to refer to the newborn Iranian government which was elected in a public election as Islamic Republic of Iran and takes for granted that this government uses “terrorism” as its weapon to control the country. The sentences are as follows:
”In Iran, almost everyone has for decades known that the United States was responsible for putting an end to democratic rules in 1953 and installing what became the long dictatorship of Mohammad Reza Shah. His dictatorship produced the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which brought to power a passionately anti-American theocracy that embraced terrorism as a tool of statecraft. Its radicalism inspired anti-Western fanatics in many countries, most notably Afghanistan, where al-Qaeda and other terror groups found homes and bases.”
On the other hand Shahryar Khavajian, the translator of the book ” همهی مردان شاه،

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