منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، Vocabulary، Discourse

process of data collection for the second book was as it went previously for the first book.
During the investigation 30% of the whole sentences were rigorously examined by the advisor of the present research in order for the validity of the research to be fulfilled.
3.5.2 Instrument and Data Analysis
Upon data collection, Farahzad’s 2007 CDA-based model of translation criticism was employed in a comparative analysis to analyze the translations, and to determine the possible ideological position of the translator. Farahzad’s model and the way it is applied on the aforementioned works are elaborated below:
3.5.2.1 Microlevel
3.5.2.1.1 Vocabulary
Regarding the book Killing Hope words related to USA were considered as key terms. The researcher tried to look for the same words in the TT, to see how many times they were repeated in both texts. The results are represented in the next chapter. Also, the words related to both USA and Britain were searched in both Kinzer’s All the Shah’s Men and its corresponding translation همهی مردان شاه by Khavvajian.
3.5.2.1.2 Grammar
What kinds of process predominate and what are their corresponding roles in the TTs? Is agency clear or not?
Are sentences active or passive and how are they rendered?
Regarding the above mentioned questions the total number of verbs in the book Killing Hope was mentioned. Then, the numbers of passive verbs versus active ones were calculated; afterwards, the number of actional versus relational verbs was calculated.
3.5.2.1.3 Analyzing the Cover pages
An analysis of the cover pages of source text and target text was carried out based upon Multimodal Discourse Analysis.
3.5.2.1.3.1 Method of Analyzing Cover pages
At this level the cover-pages of the source texts and the target texts were analyzed thoroughly in the aspects of their images and words. Then, the elements analyzed in both cover-pages were compared to see how much they adapt to the content of each book. In this case the cover pages of Blum’s Killing Hope and its translationسرکوب امید by Hooshang Mahdavi which were considerably different went under scrutiny. Also the cover pages of Kinzer’s All the Shah’s Men and its rendering همهی مردان شاه by Khavvajian which were nearly the same as each other were investigated.
3.5.2.2 Macrolevel
3.5.2.2.1 Analyzing Translator’s Judgments
This analysis was carried out on the basis of prefaces, footnotes, and/or endnotes of both prototexts and metatexts. Since both سرکوب امید andهمهی مردان شاه were translated in Iran; moreover, one of them was published by “Markaz-e Asnad-e enghelab-e eslami” (the Center of Islamic Republic Documents) which is a governmental organization, they represent ideology of Iranian government. This becomes clearer in the next chapter when these two books go thoroughly under scrutiny by the researcher.
3.5.2.2.2. Translation Strategies
The translation strategies were investigated to see what ideological implications they might have. The strategies considered to be applied on the abovementioned books were the ones mentioned in Farahzad’s model and they are as follows: Borrowing, Calque, Addition or Overwording, Undertranslation , Omission, Substitution / Alteration, explicitation, Selection of Parts from Wholes, Rearrangement of Sentence Elements. The number of strategies applied in the translation of each book is brought in the next chapter.
3.5.3 Data Sheet
Three types of tables were drawn in chapter 4. The first type presents the number of verbs, types of the verbs used, as well as the number of key words and information related to them.
Table 3.1- sample of verb tables
The name of the books
ST
TT
Total Verbs
Actionals
Relationals
Passives
Key Word Related Usage
Key Word as Direct Agent
The second type of the tables was used to portray the strategies used during translation by the translator, as well as the number of their usage and their percentage.
Table 3.2- sample of strategy tables
Strategies Applied in the Books
Number
Percentage %
Omission
Substitution/Alteration
Explicitation
Mistranslation
Addition
Undertranslation
Borrowing
Calque
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
Selection of Parts From Wholes
Total Number of Strategies
The third type of the tables were employed to manifest each case and its translation separately along with the strategy used in it.
Table 3.3- sample of each case’s table
Translation Strategy
Source Text
Target Text
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1. Overview
In the present chapter, each book specified in the corpus will be analyzed separately in a comparative study at the three levels of textual, paratextual and semiotic suggested by Farahzad (2007). At the textual level, the in-text strategies used by the translator in translation of the selected text from each book are analyzed for determining their ideological significance. At the paratextual level, any available footnote, endnote, foreword or introduction is analyzed. At the semiotic level, the cover image as well as any pictures or figures are analyzed for determining the ideological value and alignment with the dominant ideologies in Iran. These levels were carried out separately on the selected corpus element.
4.2 Microlevel Analysis
4.2.1 Vocabulary
Regarding vocabulary in this research one question had been examined:
• Are there any words and expressions used in the metatext which are ideologically significant? What role do they play in their corresponding TT?
Concerning the book ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” this research took the word America and any other word which directly or indirectly was related to the USA as a key term, words like US, USA, Washington, George Bush and so on. The reason was that these words had an ideological importance in the target culture and the content of both books directly revolved around these terms. These words were repeated altogether 2127 times in the Source Text and 3320 times in the Target Text (Table 4.1). This showed that the ‘USA’ and all words and pronouns directly related to it had become more visible in the translated text. This became more important when some more data were collected to show the grammatical roll of these ‘USA-related words’. This is elaborated later in the research.
Considering the book “All the Shah’s Men, an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” two key words of ”USA” and all the words in relation to this word and also ”Britain” and all the words pertinent to it was considered to be investigated. This is because this book was totally dedicated to describe the pivotal role of the USA and Britain in overthrowing Mohammad Mosaddegh. The first key term (USA) was repeated 326 times in the source text and 372 times in the Target text. Repeating the word Britain and its related words 493 times in the source text depicts the role of Britain even stronger than America in the 1953 Coup in Iran which burned fifty years of effort to reach democracy into ashes. This word was repeated 562 times in the target text (table 4.2). Both key terms and the words related to them were repeated more than the times in the TT which illustrates that they become more visible in the eye of the translator.
4.2.2 Grammar
In the second level of this research the grammar of the texts was scrutinized. This thesis focused on process types and agency and the voice of sentences to see whether they were active or passive. The questions in this regard were:
• What kinds of processes predominate in the ST and TT? Is agency unclear?
• How much percent of the sentences are active or passive in the Persian and English texts?
To find the answer to the first question, what was mentioned earlier in chapter two from Kress and Hodge about processes had been taken into consideration. Shortly, they categorize processes into two types: ”actionals” and “relationals”. Actionals are those verbs which indicate the actions. Relationals on the other hand are used to classify and attribute adjectives (1996: 39).
The corpus element selected from ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” contained 4483 verbs. 3868 Verbs were actionals and 615 were relationals. This gave an impression that the text emphasized more on actions rather than relations. The text was more in motion and it showed some processes were actually happening; rather than mere a description of a status.
On the other hand, in the TT there were 5014 verbs which 4179 of them were actionals and 835 relationals. This indicated that our TT was involved more in actions regarding the source text and actions had gained more emphasis. With this, the concept of agents became even more important to pay attention to (Table 4.1).
In the investigation of vocabularies of ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” the word USA and all of the words which somehow pointed to this country and their derived forms were examined. There were 2127 uses of such words in the ST and 3320 times in the TT. In the ST these words had been direct agent or part of the agent of actional processes for 1420 times while in the Target Text this became 1920(Table 4.1).this indicates that in the TT America was more responsible for actions. Considering the content of the text which was criticizing the USA for its actions it became interesting that the translator had put

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