منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، جنگ جهانی دوم، Vocabulary

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would sincerely like to thank Professor Hajar Khanmohammad who obligingly provided me with her instant feedback and numerous discussions in the making of this thesis. Without her continuous support, this thesis would have never seen the light of day.
I’m grateful to my dear friends who helped me enormously.
I also express my immense gratitude towards my parents to whom I owe a lot.
My further thanks go to Hanieh, my lovely wife, who has always welcomed me with her outstretched arms and her infinite patience.
Abstract
Translation, as a social and linguistic phenomenon, had been investigated from various viewpoints by scholars with different backgrounds. This research aims at investigating the ideological impacts of the process of translation and its consequences on the representation of ideologies and cultures. In pursuing this goal, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was found to be an accommodating tool. The theoretical structure of this research is based upon Fairclough’s framework (1989, 1995) which is employed by Dr. Farahzad in Translation Criticism (2007). The corpus used for analysis in this research consists of two books and their corresponding Persian translations: the first book is Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War ΙΙ by William Blum (2003) translated by Abdorreza Houshang Mahdavi as ” . “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” The second book is All the Shah’s Men by Stephen Kinzer (2003) translated by Shahryar Khavvajian and entitled “”همه مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه. Examining both texts and their translations from two perspectives of microlevel and macrolevel in chapter 4 illuminated the fact that both translators employed different devices to change the ideological positioning of the source texts and deviate the readers from the route they might have taken through reading the ST toward the one they presumed it was more ideologically efficient regarding the community the books were translated for.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
1.1. General Overview………………………..…………………………1
1.2. Statement of the Problem…………..……..……………………….2
1.3. Rationale and Theoretical Framework of the Study………………3
1.4. Research Questions………………………………………………..4
1.5. Research Hypotheses………………………………………………4
1.6. Significance of the Study………………………………………….5
1.7. Limitations of the study……………………………………………7
1.8. Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………..8
Review of the Related Literature
2.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………..10
2.2. The History of Critical Discourse Analysis…………………………12
2.3. Ideology………….………………………………………………….13
2.4. Ideology and Power ……………..………………………………….15
2.5. Translation and Power………………………………………………18
2.6. Impact of Translation on Representation……………………………21
2.7. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress on CDA….…………………..…23
2.8. Norman Fairclough on CDA………………………………………..28
2.9 Tenn Adrianus Van Dijk on CDA…………………………………..32
2.10. Farzaneh Farahzad on CDA………………………………………36
2.10.1 Microlevel ……………………………………………………37
2.10.1.1 Vocabulary………………………………………………37
2.10.1.2 Grammar…………………………………………………38
2.10.1.3 Multimodal Elements……………………………………40
2.10.1.3.1Multimodal Discourse Analysis……………………40
2.10.2. Macrolevel……….………………………………………………………41
Methodology
3.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………44
3.2. Restatement of Research Questions………………………………..44
3.3. Type of Research …………………….…………………………….45
3.4. Corpus ………………………………………………………………45
3.5. Procedure …………………………………………………………..45
3.5.1. Data Collection ………………..………………………………46
3.5.2. Instrument and Data Analysis……….……………………….47
3.5.2.1Microlevel………………………………………………………..47
3.5.2.1.1. Vocabulary…………………………………………47
3.5.2.1.2. Grammar……………………………………………47
3.5.2.1.3. Analyzing the Cover pages…………………………48
3.6.1.3.1. Method of Analyzing Cover pages………………48
3.5.2.2. Macrolevel………………………………………………48
3.5.2.2.1. Analyzing Translators’ Judgments…………………48
3.5.2.2.2. Translation Strategies………………………………49
3.5.3. Data Sheet……………………………………………………..49
Results and Discussions
4.1 Overview ………………………………………………….52
4.2 Microlevel Analysis…………………………………………………52
4.2.1 Vocabulary……………………………………………………..53
4.2.2. Grammar………………………………………………………54
4.2.2.1 Passive Transformation……………………………………57
4.2.3. Cover page Analysis ………………………………………….58
4.2.3.1 Analyzing the Cover Page of “Killing Hope, US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II”…………………………….59
4.2.3.2. Analyzing the Cover Page of ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” …………………………………62
4.2.3.3 Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………64
4.2.3.3 Analyzing the cover page of ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”……………………………………..66
4.3. Macrolevel……………………………..……………………………68
4.3.1. Translator’s Judgments…………………………….………….68
4.3.2. Translation strategies………………………………..…………72
4.3.2.1 ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”…………………………………………………………………………72
4.3.2.1.1 Omission Strategy……………………………………74
4.3.2.1.2 Substitution/ Alteration strategies…………………..77
4.3.2.1.3 Explicitation…………………………………………84
4.3.2.1.4 Mistranslation Strategy………………………………86
4.3.2.1.5 Addition Strategy……………………………………87
4.3.2.1.6 Undertranslation Strategy……………………………89
4.3.2.2 “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………………………………………..…90
4.3.2.2.1 Omission Strategy……………………………………91
4.3.2.2.2 Substitution/ Alteration Strategies……………….…97
4.3.2.2.3 Explicitation Strategy………………………………107
4.3.2.2.4 Addition Strategy………………………………..…109
4.3.2.2.5 Undertranslation Strategy………………………….113
Conclusion
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………….….116
5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………..……..117
5.3 Pedagogical Implications………………………………………..…118
5.4 Suggestion for Further Research…………………………………..119
Bibliograghy………………………………………………….………120
List of Tables and Images
Tables:
Table 3.1 sample of verb tables………………………………………….49
Table 3.2 sample of strategy tables……………………………………..50
Table 3.3 sample of each case’s table………………………………..….51
Table 4.1 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد………………………………………………………………………..56
Table 4.2 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه…………………………………………………61
Table 4.3 strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” ……………73
Table4.4 …………………………………………………………………74
Table 4.5…………………………………………………………………74
Table 4.6…………………………………………………………………75
Table 4.7…………………………………………………………………75
Table 4.8…………………………………………………………………75
Table 4.9…………………………………………………………………76
Table 4.10……………………………………………………………….77
Table 4.11……………………………………………………………….77
Table 4.12……………………………………………………………….78
Table 4.13……………………………………………………………….79
Table 4.14……………………………………………………………….79
Table 4.15……………………………………………………………….80
Table 4.16……………………………………………………………….80
Table 4.17……………………………………………………………….81
Table 4.18……………………………………………………………….81
Table 4.19……………………………………………………………….82
Table 4.20……………………………………………………………….82
Table 4.21……………………………………………………………….83
Table 4.22……………………………………………………………….84
Table 4.23……………………………………………………………….84
Table 4.24……………………………………………………………….85
Table 4.25……………………………………………………………….86
Table 4.26……………………………………………………………….86
Table 4.27……………………………………………………………….87
Table 4.28……………………………………………………………….88
Table 4.29……………………………………………………………….88
Table 4.30……………………………………………………………….89
Table 4.31……………………………………………………………….90
Table 4.32……………………………………………………………….91
Table 4.33……………………………………………………………….92
Table 4.34……………………………………………………………….92
Table 4.35……………………………………………………………….93
Table 4.36……………………………………………………………….96
Table 4.37……………………………………………………………….96
Table 4.38……………………………………………………………….97
Table 4.39……………………………………………………………….98
Table 4.40……………………………………………………………….99
Table 4.41……………………………………………………………….99
Table 4.42………………………………………………………………100
Table 4.43………………………………………………………………100
Table 4.44………………………………………………………………101
Table 4.45………………………………………………………………101
Table 4.46………………………………………………………………101
Table 4.47………………………………………………………………102
Table 4.48………………………………………………………………102
Table 4.49………………………………………………………………103
Table 4.50………………………………………………………………103
Table 4.51………………………………………………………………104
Table 4.52………………………………………………………………104
Table 4.53………………………………………………………………105
Table 4.54………………………………………………………………105
Table 4.55………………………………………………………………106
Table 4.56………………………………………………………………106
Table

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